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INTRODUCTION: Toolbox for Educators
Art & Ecology: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Curriculum This exceptional online resource was originally published in 1997 on ArtsEdNet with support from the Getty Education Institute for the Arts and the J. Paul Getty Trust. Includes historical overviews, essays and curriculum information.
Teaching Art in the Context of Everyday Life, by Dr. Don Krug
Forget Your Botany, by Jan van Boeckel
Artists Respond to Global Warming, Reach Across Generations, by Eban Goodstein
Twenty four Innovative Pedagogical Exercises for the Eco-art Classroom, edited by Anna Novakov
- CASE STUDIES featuring selected projects of interest.
- RESOURCES additional links and organizations.
- Plus a Wiki Section for Educators for adding your comments and suggestions.
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Eco-art Pedagogy as Eco-art PracticeBy Ann T. Rosenthal
At the heart of eco-art practice is the desire to educate. Interpretive signage along a trail can instruct directly, as in Ruth Wallen's "Children's Forest Nature Walk" or Erica Fielder's informative panels along the California Coast. Sometimes our pedagogy is more subtle, coaxing the senses and the heart to "think like a mountain," seeing through the eyes of human and non-human "Others." The performances of Fern Shaffer and Othello Anderson, or the sculptural habitats created by Lynne Hull are a few examples. Restoration of damaged sites affirms our ability to heal scarred earth and poisoned water; revealing the effects of our neglect and inspiring our care. Working on interdisciplinary teams, restoration artists contribute their systems thinking to contextualize specialized knowledge and facilitate elegant solutions, as in the work of Betsy Damon or the team of Tim Collins and Reiko Goto. If education is at the core of our practice, then pedagogy is a potent tool. As such, engaging eco-art theory and practice in the classroom may be as much "eco-art" as reclaiming landfills, restoring watersheds, unearthing histories of place, and marking lived experience.
In talking to my eco-art colleagues, I have been delighted by the diversity of approaches in teaching eco-art. Student projects come in all forms and media: gardens, installations, sculpture, performance, cartography, digital media, theatre, writing, and site design and restoration. In parallel, teaching eco-art "theory" can deepen students' understanding of the causes of and possible solutions to social and environmental injustice, drawing upon ecology, geography, philosophy, history, literature, cultural and gender studies, urban planning and landscape architecture, to name just a few.
In "Ecology and Community," physicist Fritjof Capra contends that to cultivate ecoliteracy, we need to literally see the relationships, or patterns, between elements and members of a community:
The study of pattern, or of form, is the study of quality, which requires visualizing and mapping. Form and pattern must be visualized. This is a very important aspect of studying patterns, and it is the reason why, every time the study of pattern was in the forefront, artists contributed significantly to the advancement of science. (Capra 1994, 3)
The pattern-recognition skills shared by both scientists and artists are explored by Howard Gardner in his theory of multiple intelligences. In defining the "naturalist" intelligence, Gardner states: "...it is possible that the pattern-recognizing talents of artists, poets, social scientists, and natural scientists are all built on the fundamental perceptual skills of naturalist intelligence." (Gardner 1999, 50)
How can ecoart pedagogy encourage our ability to recognize patterns and relationships, and thus foster ecoliteracy? Teaching both the theory and practice of ecoart within and beyond the classroom can be highly effective in developing:
Eco-artists are crafting interdisciplinary, hands-on methodologies at all educational levels. In approaching K-12 education, Capra continues:
... the study of pattern comes naturally to children; to visualize pattern, to draw pattern, is natural. In traditional schooling this has not been encouraged. Art has been sort of on the side. We can make this a central feature of ecoliteracy: the visualization and study of pattern through the arts.(Capra 1994, 4)
Numerous studies indicate that arts education provides invaluable skills in harnessing and synthesizing the qualities of logic, organization, flexibility and insight; creative teamwork; learning that problems are opportunities not obstacles; and learning to discipline the imagination to solve difficult problems.
Addressing education at the college level, Dr. Vartan Gregorian, former President and Professor of History at Brown University, states:
... we have to develop creative multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches in our liberal arts curricula in order to provide intellectual coherence through interdisciplinary themes. There is no reason why scientific, historical, and literary themes cannot be taught through team teaching as well as multiple and comparative perspectives and expertise, in order to provide our students knowledge not only of disciplines but of their interconnectedness as well. (Gregorian 1993, 610-11).
The environment is an ideal "theme" to begin the work Dr. Gregorian suggests. Eco-artists can lead the way in developing interdisciplinary, eco-centric methodologies and curricula that transform our understanding of education while we expand the role of artists in effecting social and environmental change.
In this section of greenmuseum.org, we begin a conversation on the theory and practice of ecoart pedagogy. These initial projects in the Educator's Toolbox suggest the range and potential of this budding grove: from middle school through college and into the community; from compost bins to gardens and international exchanges. These first plantings are designed to wet your palette and entice your desire! Though they are drawn largely from the U.S. (due to familiarity, not intent), we hope in the coming months to highlight ecoart-ed worldwide. Thus we invite our colleagues near and far to share your strategies, projects, and syllabi, as well as your struggles and successes. In so doing, we will grow a rich resource for greening education through ecoart.
Capra, Fritjof. "From the Parts to the Whole: Systems Thinking in Ecology and Education." 1994. Berkeley: Center
Gardner, Howard. Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York: Basic Books, 1999.
Gregorian, Vartan. "Education and Our Divided Knowledge," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 137
Note that some of this text is drawn from my essay 'Teaching Systems Thinking and Practice through Environmental Art." Ethics and the Environment, Special Issue on Art 8 (2003).
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